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Vol. 18 | (1)
attached file   04_The trajectory of learning-centered English class.pdf  
The trajectory of learning-centered English class and its instructional effectiveness: Using a curve-of-factors model
Innovative school, learning-centered class (LCC), learning-centered English class (LCEC), instructional effectiveness, higher-order latent growth curve mode 


This study investigated the instructional effectiveness of a learning-centered English class (LCEC) that embodies the classroom innovation of the school reform movement in South Korea from a longitudinal perspective. Using panel data from 938 participants (507 male, 431 female), a curve-of-factors model was employed to explore the trajectory and effectiveness of the LCEC, including cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains. The results indicate that the LCEC was well implemented in the first year and increased slightly throughout innovative middle school. The LCEC improved English self-efficacy, achievement, and interest, as well as attitude, comprehension, and participation in English class. Furthermore, it ameliorated classroom disengagement and enhanced students’ school satisfaction. Based on the results, educational policy and intervention programs for the development of LCEC are suggested.